Radiation used carbon dating

Some cancers are easier to treat with radiotherapy than others - it's not too difficult to aim gamma rays at a breast tumour, but for lung cancer it's much harder to avoid damaging healthy cells.Also, lungs are more easily damaged by gamma rays, therefore other treatments may be used.Animals and plants have a known proportion of Carbon-14 (a radioisotope of Carbon) in their tissues.When they die they stop taking Carbon in, then the amount of Carbon-14 goes down at a known rate (Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5700 years).Because the time it takes to convert biological materials to fossil fuels is substantially longer than the time it takes for its in the atmosphere, which attained a maximum in 1963 of almost twice what it had been before the testing began.

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The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis; animals then acquire in a sample from a dead plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died.Also radioisotopes are used in industry, to detect leaking pipes.To do this, a small amount is injected into the pipe.Research has been ongoing since the 1960s to determine what the proportion of in the atmosphere has been over the past fifty thousand years.The resulting data, in the form of a calibration curve, is now used to convert a given measurement of radiocarbon in a sample into an estimate of the sample's calendar age.

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