The strongest and most enduring element of SWAPO ideology has been nationalism, seen as a necessary counter to the ethnic divisions perpetuated by apartheid.
At independence on 21 March 1990, SWAPO became the first democratically elected ruling party of the new nation, a position it has held through two subsequent elections.
Others speak Khoisan languages (Nama/Damara and various Bushman languages), while a smaller percentage are native speakers of Indo-European languages like Afrikaans and English.
Afrikaans was promoted as a language of wider communication before independence and is still widely spoken in southern and central Namibia.
Increasing expropriations of land and cattle by German settlers led Herero and Nama communities to rebel.
Namibia was originally inhabited by nomadic hunters, gatherers, and pastoralists (livestock herders), the ancestors of today's Bushman and Khoispeaking people.The population is youthful, with 44 percent aged fourteen and under and only 4 percent older than 65.About 60 percent live in the far north, where rainfall is sufficient for grain farming.Soccer is extremely popular among men of all ethnicities, and the national team is followed closely and is widely discussed. Despite the emphasis on nationalism, ethnicity is still a force in Namibian society.Some groups have restored kings to power and made land claims since independence, and the official opposition party, the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), is an alliance of ethnically-based organizations.